Image courtesy of SOHO/EIT consortium. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.


(URL addresses verified on 01. Mar. 2005)

  • Ball, J. C. 1995. A comparison of the UV-B irradiance of low-intensity, full spectrum lamps with natural sunlight. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society, 30(4), 69-72.

  • Bernard, J.B. 1995. Spectral Irradiance of Fluorescent Lamps and their efficacy for promoting vitamin D synthesis in herbivorous reptiles. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University. 35 p.

  • Gehrmann, W. H. 1987. Ultraviolet Irradiances of Various Lamps Used in Animal Husbandry. Zoo Biology 6: 117-127.

  • Gehrmann, W. H. 1994. Light requirements of captive amphibians and reptiles. In Captive Management and Conservation of Amphibians and Reptiles. J. B. Murphy, K. Adler, and J. T. Collins (eds.) Soc. Study Amphib. Reptiles (SSAR), pp. 53-59.

  • Holick, M. F., Tian, X. Q., Allen, M. 1995. Evolutionary Importance for the Membrane Enhancement of the Production of Vitamin D3 in the Skin of Poikilothermic Animals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92, 3124-3126.

  • Jones, G., Strugnell, S.A., DeLuca, H.F. 1998. Current understanding of the molecular actions of vitamin D. Physiological Revievs 78:1193-231.

  • Lou, Y.R., Laaksi, I., Syvälä, H., Bläuer, M., Tammela, T.L., Ylikomi, T., Tuohimaa, P. 2003. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 is an active hormone in human primary prostatic stromal cells. The FASEB Journal Express Article 10.1096/fj.03-0140fje. Published online December 4, 2003. <>

  • MacLaughlin, J. A., Anderson, R. R., Holick, M. F. 1982. Spectral Character of Sunlight Modulates Photosynthesis of Previtamin D3 and its Photoisomers in Human Skin. Science 216: 1001-1003.

  • Webb, AR., DeCosta, BR., Holick, MF. 1989. Sunlight regulates the cutaneous production of vitamin D3 by causing its photodegradation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 68(5): 882-887. <>